Effects of Marijuana

marijuana

Marijuana: Effects on the Mother

Prolonged use may lead to apathy, lack of energy, lack of desire to work or be productive, diminished concentration, poor personal hygiene, preoccupation with marijuana – the amotivational syndrome

Effects on the fetus

Marijuana can easily cross into the placenta, and causes increased levels of carbon monoxide in the mother’s blood, reducing the level of oxygen to the fetus.

With more states legalizing the sale of Marijuana, there are more users. Those that smoke or exposure to the smoke from their significant others who smoke, Need to be aware of the effect on the unborn fetus.

Issues

One issue with Marijuana use, is that often it has other street drugs combined with the plant itself. Or additional THC is added to compound the effects. These two, and other contaminants can create the issues that will be discussed regarding the development of the fetus, and the later development of the fetus through early childhood.

There have been few definitive studies conducted on humans as to the effects of Marijuana on the fetus. “A new study in animals suggests that children who are exposed to marijuana in the womb may suffer from a variety of long-term problems even if they aren’t born with obvious birth defects.”

One of the components of Marijuana, that the researchers call WIN, has shown an effect in studies conducted on lab rats. Although, not causing birth defects, Marijuana does cause memory loss and inability to learn. “Researchers say they also found that WIN interfered with the release of a brain transmitter called glutamate, a key chemical associated with learning and memory processing.”

An Italian research team found that marijuana caused a disruption from “chemical and electrical processes in the brain during gestation (Bhattacharya)” in lab rats. The effects the study indicates, can be confounded by smoking, wealth, and urban living.

Even second-hand Marijuana smoke can affect the unborn fetus. It can cause your baby to be born premature, and have a lower birth weight, both are risks for the baby. Studies are few and far between, due to the risks involved on the fetus. “In the very few studies available, there appears to be an increase in the incidence of premature labor and low birthweight. In cases in which pot had been tainted with a stimulant (cocaine, for example), there was an increased risk for dangerously fast labors (less than three hours) and for placental abruption (separation of the placenta from the uterine wall)” states Dr. David Barrera.

Observation has shown that “…babies born to women who abused marijuana during their pregnancies display altered responses to visual stimuli, increased tremulousness (trembling or shaking), and a high-pitched cry — any of which may indicate neurological problems in development”. Later in the child’s development these children have a lack of problem-solving skills, and poor memory.

Based on a study conducted by University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, and colleagues in the Eunice K. Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, babies born to smokers of Marijuana are two times more likely to have stillborn babies.

REFERENCES:

Bhattacharya, Shaoni. Marijuana use in pregnancy damages kids’ learning. 25 March 2003 http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3543-marijuana-use-in-pregnancy-damages-kids-learning.html#.VQWPAeGgZ-8

Hackethal, Veronica MD. Smoking Pot May Double Risk for Stillbirth. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/817503 Medscape Medical News. December 9, 2013

Herbert, Clare. I’m pregnant and my partner smokes weed. Will it affect our baby? http://www.babycentre.co.uk/x1043727/im-pregnant-and-my-partner-smokes-weed-will-it-affect-our-baby#ixzz3USuXGKAG November 2014

How could marijuana use affect your unborn baby? http://www.pregnancyandbaby.com/pregnancy/articles/937071/secondhand-toke-marijuana-pregnancy

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Plains Paleo-Vegetarian Nutrition for Pregnancy

(this information was taken from my sister site hoksiyuhaboti)

The first thing you should know is that there are many types of vegetarians and styles of eating vegetarian.  The two most common are Lacto-Ovo (milk and eggs) and Ovo (eggs). There are also “semi-vegetarians” who mostly eat a vegetarian diet, with occasional additions of chicken, or fish. My vegetarian cookbook mentions crusto-vegetarians who eat shell fish; mollo-vegetarians who eat clams, scallops, oysters or mullosks; repto-vegetarians who eats snakes and other reptiles…as examples of the few of many variations on the vegetarian diet.

For the Lakota, your diet could be called a Paleo-Vegetarian diet.

alaska from scratch on pinterest
from Alaska From Scratch on Pinterest

What??

As Lakota people, consider this: your fore-mothers gathered tinpsila (wild turnips), beans (there is story about this vegetable and the importance of “giving back”), blo (wild potatoes), berries, corn (wagmeza), squash (wagmu) and many other fruits and vegetables.  There were healing plants that would have also found its way into the pot, as well.

The people gathered eggs when possible, traded for corn and squash, and gathered wild rice (before coming out to the plains).  In the old stories about the first Huƞka “making of relatives” ceremony,  with the Arikira.  Corn was given in the ceremony, by the Arikira. Corn is used in soup with Tinpsila and Tripe (buffalo guts).  This soup is used in ceremony.

Since many of you do not gather up your fruits and vegetables in the old way, what can you do? First, get fresh fruit and vegetables whenever possible, when in season (less expense).  Next to that would be dried or frozen.

Unfortunately, most of the dried foods found in stores around Native country are sulfured. “Organically made” dried foods are hard to find, and disproportionately expensive.

You can create a garden.  To do so you would need to use an old traditional practice of “the three sisters” for planting.  The garden would consist of beans, corn and squash. You can create low mounds with the squash at the center of the top, a circle of corn surrounding it interdispersing some bean bush plants. The center of the top would have a slight indent to catch water from the summer thunder storms.

Grains are not a part of the Paleo diet, with an exception of wild rice by the northern bands of the Oċeti Ṡakowiƞ. Baked or fried bread never was a part of the old traditional diet, not even unleavened flat breads. But I was told that there was a dumpling made from starchy vegetables and formed into balls then placed into the soup.

Nuts were also gathered when the people were encamped.  So you can add some nuts to your diet for protein.  The best nut is the almond, and of course walnuts would have been gathered a long time ago, from the walnut trees.  If you choose to use acorns, make sure you understand the method to process them into edible food.  Pine nuts are excellent, too.

The Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet

If you have Diabetes, obesity, kidney or heart disease you can be assured that the vegetarian diet will help you to build your way back to good health. Too much meat eaten at a meal is hard for the digestive system, and often is transformed into acids.

“Most digestive disorders, such as indigestion, nausea, bloating, gastric reflux, are symptoms caused by excess acid in the gastric region and not enough alkaline minerals in the intestinal tract.[i]

Can you go Paleo AND do vegetarian? Why, yes.  Remember there are many types of vegetarian diets. You can play with the type of meats you use… but, always remember you need to purchase grass-fed, free-range, and you will be much healthier!

If you add eggs, these too should be free-range.  Milk should not be raw, but you should consider this: it was not a part of the Lakota/Dakota/Nakota diet.  Women breastfed their babies sometimes until 7 years of age, and then no other milk was consumed.
Acid/ Alkaline pH Considerations

Many diseases are caused by pH imbalance.  Such as: diabetes, heart disease, arthritis to name a few.  Also disorders can be healed by eating correctly such as: acid reflux, morning sickness, migraines, and constipation.

A vegetarian diet is mostly alkaline in nature.  This is due to the ratio of vegetables and fruits in the diet to proteins. Meats (red meats, beef, mutton, pork, salmon, herring, mackerel, lobster, shrimp and crayfish), millet, white rice, couscous, semolina, white breads, soda crackers, white refined sugars and items coated with it, lard and some lard-like products (Crisco) used for cooking, are all foods high in acid forming elements.

In general, a good rule of thumb is to plate your food with 2/3 alkaline foods, and 1/3 acidic. Of the alkaline types of foods, you should choose any leafy green vegetables, but the ones highest in minerals and vitamins for re-building and maintaining good health are Kale, Bok Choy, and spinach.  In the Orange to yellow vegetable bracket are squashes, pumpkins, and carrots.  Citric fruits should be eaten early in the day for better digestion.

Foods to avoid:

Refined sugar, all processed foods (white bread, rolls, etc.), any of the typical sweetening substitutes such as Sweet and Low (a carcinogenic) except for stevia (which is plant-based). Even though you may love your fry bread (as I do) that needs to be very limited (only at ceremony or special occasions). Most of the canned fruits used for Wojapi have an additional amount of corn syrups, so use fresh fruits instead.

 

REFERENCES:

Goodman, Ronald.  Lakota Star Knowledge.
Vasey, Christopher.  Acid Alkaline Diet for Optimum Health, The.  (1999) Healing Arts Press.

[i] How to Balance Your pH to Heal Your Body. http://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-6243/How-to-Balance-Your-pH-to-Heal-Your-Body.html.

Symptoms of Marginal Nutrient Deficiencies

 

  • Tiredness or fatigue
  • Stressed
  • Irritability
  • Trouble with concentration or remembering
  • Numbness or tingling of extremities
  • Low immunity or prone to colds or the flu
  • Depression / Anxiety
  • Cravings for sweets
  • Morning Sickness

 

DEPRESSION OR ANXIETY: Deficiencies in vitamin B1.

Whole grains, wheat germ, peanuts, green peas, dark leafy green vegetables, lean pork, cooked dried beans and peas.

CRAVING SWEETS/MORNING SICKNESS: Deficiency in Vitamin B6

VERY PALE SKIN: Deficiency in Folic Acid

FATIGUE:  deficiency in iron

Before becoming fatigued, remember that many foods are packed with iron. So begin eating these foods even before becoming pregnant. These foods are: Black Strap Molasses, Spinach, Kale,

INCREASED COLDS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FLU: Deficiency in copper, iron, selenium, zinc, Vitamin A & Beta Carotine, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, or any of the B vitamins (especially Folic Acid)

DISORIENTATION/NUMBNESS OR TINGLING OF EXTREMITIES/MOODINESS/IRRITABILITY/DIZZYNESS: Vitamin B12 deficiency which causes macrocytic anemia, or if the cause is by a lack of digestive factor, pernicious anemia.  These two are not the same as an iron deficiency.

Found mostly in food of animal origin, i.e. meats, milk and eggs. If found in plant form it usually is due to fermentation such as Miso.

Note: B12 deficiency may put you at risk for a preterm delivery, or a low-birth-rate baby.

 

Pregnancy Diet For Baby

Plan your meals, AND SNACKS around fresh veggies and fruit, grains and legumes, and ample calcium-rich / protein-rich foods.

Whats-the-Paleo-Diet-3
For those who eat Paleo with Meat

Start your day with a good breakfast:

-Helps energy levels

-maintains optimum weight

-Even just a small meal with some protein and carbs will be beneficial

Eat meals and snacks every 3 to 4 hours

-snacks should include one fruit or vegetables with one serving from another food group.

– Fruit, or vegetable juice (non-sweetened preferably) can substitute for a fruit or vegetable serving.

THE 5-MINUTE MEAL

The trick to preparing a quick, low-calorie meals and snacks are advanced planning, having a basic inventory of ingredients and the right kitchen tools/appliances.

Tools/appliances: microwave oven, slow-cooker, wok or non-stick skillet and a blender

Plan your meals using fresh vegetables and fruit, whole grains and legumes (beans), along with protein rich food.  Try not to have canned fruits packed in syrup, eat oatmeal instead of granola bars, steamed broccoli instead of the packaged broccoli with creamed cheese…

SUPER FOODS
Spinach
kidney beans
Tofu
Wheat germ
Broccoli
Papaya
Salmon
Non-fat Milk 

Eat fresh fruits and vegetables that are in season, when they are not in season chose frozen before canned.
You can add Nuts such as: almonds, cashews, peanuts, pecans, pistachios, walnuts, and peanut butter.

Also add seeds such as:
  pumpkin, sesame, or sunflower seeds. 

PROTEIN RICH FOODS

Proportion size should be three ounces of extra-lean meat, skinless chicken, fish or one cup of cooked dried beans, lentils, split peas or chickpeas.
~Limit eggs to just one per day.

CALCIUM RICH FOODS                                                                                                                  

Cooked black-eyed peas
Bok Choy
Broccoli
Low-Fat Cheese
Collard greens
cottage cheese
Rice Dream
Kale
Yogurt

GREAT GRAINS:

Whole wheat bagel
Whole wheat breads
Sourdough bread
Cornbread
Whole wheat Pita
Rice, preferably brown
white basmati rice
Whole grain Total cereal                                                                                                               Noodles or pasta
Kellog’s, Eggo Homestyle waffles
Cooked cereal: Oatmeal, barley, farina

QUENCHERS:  Sparkling water, apple cider, apple juice, apricot nectar, carrot juice, grapefruit, grape, orange, papaya nectar, passion fruit nectar, peach nectar, pineapple juice, prune, tomato juice, V8 juice.
If you eat well, the occasional treat will not be a problem, so long as it is not a substitute for whole nutritious foods.


Drink at least 32 ounces water (by itself), a day.

Dehydration is one of the main factors of early labor in women.

Drink tea instead of drinking coffee (it dehydrates).

You should try to drink these teas, at least two cups a day:

Red Raspberry Leaf / Nettle tea.